A geographic information system (GIS) technology incorporates geographical features with data in order to permit for mapping, analyzing and assessing real-world issues. The key word to this technology is geography – As an example, GIS allows you to not only find any geographical features on the earth surface, but it will also provide information about geographic location and characteristics of that feature. Geographic Information System is becoming vital to understand and make better decisions about locations, What is happening in a specific area and Once we recognize, We can take corrective actions.
Uses of Geographic Information System?
Almost everything happens somewhere on the planet, knowing wherever some things happen is critically vital.
The possibilities are unlimited…
- Resource management.
- Land Use Planning.
- Location of volcanoes.
- Economic development and Businesses promotion.
- Transportation routing.
- Historical data management.
- Fiber Network Management.
- Public Safety Operation like Emergency Operations – Fire, Police and also weather risks.
- Incidents, like crime statistics.
The system will include information concerning individuals, like population, income, or education level. It will include info regarding the landscape, like the situation of streams, totally different sorts of vegetation or in brief each feature currently present on earth.
What Geographic Information System Can Do?
Today GIS is used as a most powerful tool for decision making that have a huge range of applications. With GIS, we can analyze topographic, demographic, and environmental and land use data to help in better business decisions.
- Mapping where things are: It helps us to map spatial location and visualize the spatial relationship among the real world features.
- Mapping densities.We can also map concentrations, or a quantity of spatial data for a specified area.
- Mapping quantities: GIS can help us to find best places that meet our requirement for our business promotions.
- Change Detection: We can map the change in a particular area of feature to anticipate future conditions. For example, land use changes can be monitored using remote sensing technology and we can easily visualize the changes over different time frame.
History of Geographic Information System – GIS
Possibly the earliest use of the geographic information methodology, in 1854 Mr John Snow represented cholera happening in London exploitation points to represent the locations of some individual cases. His study of the distribution of cholera led to the source of the disease, which a contaminated pump within the guts of the infectious disease natural
event. whereas the essential components of topology and theme existed antecedently in cartography, the John Snow map was distinctive, exploitation cartographic strategies, not solely to depict however conjointly to investigate, clusters of geographically dependent phenomena for the first time. The work of John Snow incontestable that GIS could be a problem-solving tool. He places geographic layers on a paper map and created a life-saving discovery.
In 1968 Roger Tomlinson was the first to use the term “Geographic information system” while working for the Canadian government. At this time, GIS actually became a computer-based tool for storing map information. Roger Tomlinson can forever be remembered as the “Father of GIS”.
Components Of Geographic Information System
A Geographic Information System is not only about computers, software, and electronic data. GIS is an organized collection of software, hardware, data, people, and methods.
Key software components are :
- A database management system (DBMS)
- Tools for the input and control of geographic data
- Tools that help geographic query, analysis, and representation
- A graphical user interface (GUI) for easy access to tools.
GIS software: are either commercial software package or software developed on Open source domain, that are offered for free of charge. However, the commercial software package is copyright protected, are often costly and is offered in terms variety of licensees. presently offered commercial GIS software package includes Arc/Info, Intergraph, MapInfo, C++ etc. Out of those Arc/Info is that the most well-liked software package. And, the open source software package is QGIS etc.
Hardware: Hardware is the PC on which a GIS operates. Today, GIS runs on a large range of computer hardware, it might be Desktop or a centralized server based. To perform well all hardware component must have high capacity.
Data: The foremost vital part of a GIS is the information. Geographic information or spatial information and related tabular information can be collected in-house or bought from a commercial information provider. spatial information may be in the form of a map/remotely-sensed information like satellite imagery and aerial photography. These information forms should be properly georeferenced (latitude/longitude). Tabular information can be in the form of attribute data that is in some way associated with the spatial information. The most GIS software package comes with built-in database management Systems (DBMS) to make and maintain a database to assist organize and manage information.
Users: The user-friendly interface of the GIS software package permits the nontechnical users to possess quick access to GIS analytical capabilities without having to grasp detailed software package commands. an easy interface (UI) will accommodate menus and pull-down graphic windows so that the user will perform needed analysis with a couple of key presses without having to find out specific commands in detail.
Methods: A successful GIS operation required the best business rules and excellent setup, Which are the models and operating practices unique to each organization and also an important aspect.
Types of Geographic Information System Applications
There are a variety of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) (or GIS software) offered nowadays. they vary from high-powered analytical software package to visual web applications, and each of those is used for a distinct purpose.
- Web-based GIS: maps.google.com, Bing Maps or openstreetmap.org.
- Geo Browser: Google Earth.
- Desktop GIS: ArcGIS or QGIS.